別府信空上人著の『慈悲』を読みました

January 25, 2017

数年の間は神道を宗教としていましたが、次第に自分が地獄行きだというぼんやりした気持ちが強くなってきました。ジョッギングしなくなったので神社にはあまり行かなくなりましたし。自分の「宗教」は運動に付随している中途半端なものかもしれません。最近ではいつも自転車に乗っていますので、自転車に乗っている間「南無阿弥陀仏」と念仏を唱えるようになりました。そこで、自分が救われたというよりは反対に、別府上人が書いているように
「今迄の様な生き方をしていれば、所詮地獄へ良くより他にないのだなあとわからせて戴くわけです。これが念仏の第一段階ですね」p.20
 本格的に神道に興味をもつようになったのは、黒住教の講習を受けたころからですが、その理由の一つは黒住教によれば心は天照大神の鏡の分身だという教えがあったからです。その当時は天照の存在は感じませんでしたが、たしかに心は大きな鏡のような物だと感じていました。『慈悲』にも「鏡の心」と題した章では、非常に似ているような教があります。
「智恵という場合、仏教では四つにわけて説明いたします。
一つを大円鏡智、2つには平等性智、三つには妙観察智、四つには成所作智と申します。
大円鏡智というのは字の如く円い大きな鏡のような智恵です。
私共は、一点の曇りもない透き通った鏡のような如来様の大円鏡智にすべて照らし出されているのです。
如来様の大円鏡智は私共にもあるのです。如来様と私共とその本体が一緒ですから両方がもっているわけです。」p.182
またp.183にはその大円鏡智は日本人が嘘を言わなかった理由だと書いています。また「お念仏を一生懸命するよになりますと、自然自然に判って来るのです。
どれだけ判るかと言うと、大円鏡智のお徳によって、すべてが見えるようになって来るという事です。」p.189 念仏が効果を持つ理由についても説明しています。「仏教にはみんな苦を滅する方向を、どういう方法でもってやってゆくかを説いているのです。一つには座禅をする。座禅をして、一切の心にとらわれない様な自分に鍛え上げていくことです。座禅をしてゆきますと心が静まってきます。
 じっと心を静まってゆきますと、始めのうちは今迄の生活の事や、色々な雑念が出てまいりますが雑念にとりあわずに、じっと流してゆきますと、深い深いところから来る観念がまた出てきます。それにも取り合わずに一生懸命無念無想になってゆくと、それも又ビッシャット落ちてゆきます。中略
ところが凡夫はなかなかそういうことは出来ないから、それならば始めからそう言う心が出ぬようにしてしまおうじゃないかというのが念仏です。
 南無阿弥陀仏、南無阿弥陀仏と称えて、そういう凡夫の心が出て来ない先に潰してゆくのです。」p249

しかし、何よりも、他力で、如来様に愛されているという非常にポジティブな本です。「物全てを+(プラス)で受け取る」というほうは特にそうです。
「み仏の肘の胸に深く抱かれているんだと思い取ることが大事です。。。。」p146
現実の世界の中総てが徐来様のお慈悲の懐の中であるという自覚がありますと、この世の中の出来事は何も心配する事はありません。病気結構、貧乏結構、何もかも結構ゝと頂けてくるのです。
やれ病になった癌になったと言ってびっくりする。びっくりして癌が治癒するのならよいけれども、びっくりした位いでは癌は治りは致しません。
  やれ癌になったのか、私の平素の心の使い方や食事の摂り方、身体の動かし方、総て悪かったのだから、間に合えば手術するも良し、間に合わなぬば南無阿弥陀仏で死んでゆけば良いのです。」p147
 私を含めて世界は何かの巨人のファンタシーだと信じていましたが、その理解が愉快ではありませんでした。逆に多少ホラーな感じでした。別府上人がからくりを持続させている愛情や慈悲を感じさせてくれます。

他にメモ
「来年はこの木がよくなるよ」(平等性智)p198
平等はなからず差別を伴う。即ち現れて来る時には、差別になって現れて来るのです。(存在も差別?)p207
このようの中は如来さんの懐の中ですから、正しい回向の果たされてゆくところなのです。(如来の★中★)p.210
物は如来様の生命 (アニミズム, p.212)
夫婦の愛(namasute, p.214)
絵にせよ字にせよ所詮は書く人の心の表われです(書道研究に,p,231)
法界の性は唯心の造るところと観ずべし
男の人が世界を見た場合と、女の人が見た場合と又違うのです。(男女の政界は違う)p.237
名前というのは体を表しているので、浄土宗では名体不離と申し上げます ( p240)
接近する如来の話(Douglas Hardingも)p290

Posted by timtak at 05:58 PM | Comments (0)

Ancient Egyptian Eye see I

December 19, 2016


Tutankamun's dad, Akhenaton was a funny old soul. He gave up on all the ancient Egyptian deities and worshipped one, the disk of the Sun, instead. He depicted the sun as a disk with rays ending in hands, and himself and the royal family with strangely elongated thin hands and legs, enlarged bellies and enlarged chests. While some archeologists claim that these distortions conform to the actual shape of the pharohs body, it seems to me that they are those of someone who see themself from their own eyes from a frist person perspective, in the Eye of the sun disk that he worshipped. Akhenaton was also depicted as the Sphinx, another possible first person self view. After Akhenaton's death the Egyptians went back to worshipping their traditional Gods, and the name of Akhenaton, his father and son, were redacted from the historical list of pharos. Akhenaton was instead referred to as "that criminal," and the temples built to honour Aten, the disk of the sun, were destroyed.

via http://flic.kr/p/P7Xp7x
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Who is Satoshi?

December 18, 2016


Satoshi whose name means "clear thinking," or enlightening* is a boy with the voice of a woman, who loves and cuddles his pocket monster friend: the character Pika Chuu. Pika when he speaks, only speaks his name.

As in the above image, and rather disturbingly, Satoshi is often displayed decapitated from the neck up cuddling his friend. Only his female voice can be heard. It seems likely that the Pocket Monster Trainer, Pocket Monster combination is another representation of the structure of the self, in which we (or at least the Japanese) are the little monsters.

Bearing in mind the size of consciousness, while we all generally do it, there is little more bizarre than believing oneself to be a character in a mirror, a name or the hero of a narrative, but Satoshi is so big, so hermaphrodite, and cuddles us so tightly and lovingly that we can't bear to look in the direction of the Enlightening.

Being hugged, reminds me of, as mentioned earlier, in a slightly different version, a Pure Land Buddhist monk description of his brush with enlightenment.

The Reverend Shinkuu Beppu would go to bed early, get up at midnight, and chant for 5 hours from about one in the morning.

On the advice of a friend that he should continue his chanting in the belief that the Buddha has come to within 9 feet in front of him, Beppu writes "So today, I thought I would chant Amida, the name of the Buddha of Light, as if he were 9 feet in front of me but, if nine feet then why not eight feet, seven feet, five feet, four feet, three feet, two feet, one foot. I can still remember thinking six inches when suddenly, Amida hugged me so tightly. I could Amida's tight embrace in both my arms.
And then, I heard Amida's voice "You say help me, and that you want to meet me but way before you realised it, wasn't I hugging you all along? Can't you feel my* heart?" (Beppu, 1986, p. 60, rough translation by me)

Notes
* Satoshi is the noun form of the intransitive verb Satosu "make wise," a cognate of "Satori," the noun form of Satoru to become enlightened.
**the Buddha's heart

Chanting as one imagines an approach may be a good idea.

Here it is in the original Japanese
「九尺前に生き身の如来様がおいでる
と思うて念仏せぬば百日やっても行は成就しない、とおっしゃっている事を思い出して、
ならば今日は、九尺前に如来様がいらっしゃる事にしようと思いつつ念仏としていましたが、九尺ならば、八尺でもいいじゃないか、八尺なら七尺でも、六尺でも、五尺でもいい、四尺でも、三尺でも、二尺でも、一尺でも5寸でもいいわけです。
この五寸でもよいと言うところ迄は記憶があるのです。6寸を過ぎた後、私はガバッと如来様に抱き締められました。ぐいぐい抱き締めてくる感覚が両の腕に伝わってくるのです。
そして、お前は助けてくれとか、お逢い下さいとか言っているが、お前が気づく、遥かはるか昔から私はこうしてお前を抱き締めているではないか、この私(仏)の心が分からないのかという如来様のお声をしっかり聞きました。」 (別府, 1986, p. 60)

The above image copyright the copyright holders of Pokémon, my rendition of a frame from a Pokémon animation that my daughter was watching on YouTube.

Bibliography
Beppu, S. 別府信空.(1986).『慈悲ー別府上人法話集ー』(Compassion: Collection of the preaching of the Reverend Beppu).東京:正受院.

Posted by timtak at 01:08 PM | Comments (0)

Dali's Sacrement and Bush's Body

December 17, 2016


Bush's bath painting is a self-person body view of the painters feet.

Philippe Rochat seems to claim that the intra-psychic Other argued by psychologists to be required for self-cognition (Freud's super-ego, Mead's generalised other etc) hangs out in our first person body view (Rochat, 1997, p.105, Rochat, 2009) . Under Rochat's interpretation, I believe, infants first get to know their first person self and then spectate their mirror reflected and pronounal selves ("I" "me") from the perspective of the first person self. In other words, our first person self sticks around to watch us. No wonder that for the longest time humans made models of it in the form of Venus figurines (McDermott, 1996), or that first person body may appear in various myths as headless or animal-headed giant such as the Buraq, Ganesh and Sphinx, and perhaps the eyes and nose of Izanami from Japan, and the brow of Puntan from Guam.

Salvadore Dali, in the only painting of his that I have hung on my wall (in postcard form) represented the Sacrament of the Last Supper, where presumably Jesus is saying, "do this in memory of me (breaks bread) this is my body". In Dali's rendition the disciples hunched over their own bodies, whereas Christ is pointing to his own and a giant headless one, corresponding to the self views of his disciples, floating over the room. It seems to me that Pure Land Buddhist monks sometimes find themselves likewise in lap of this vast self person that loves us so fiercely we tend to forget.

Bush is reported to have said that he intended his bath picture to shock. I think that when we really see our 'I see I' self-person-body view again it may be quite a shock. In his picture of himself in the shower Bush shows two third person reflections one of his face the other of his back. The person that sees us in the mirror is in fact, like the legs's in Bush's bath, someone else, and upside down. Dali knows that when he breaks bread, his self-person view body of his torso will always be that of someone else, his saviour. George W. Bush in his shower may be trying to persuade himself that all his bodies are his own. Or perhaps former President Bush knows all this. Similar to my picture of myself in front of a mirror, you can't see Bush's right hand.

The above image is the Google search results for George W Bush paintings, superimposed with the wikipedia image for Salvadore Dali's "Sacrement of the Last Supper" both reduced in size.
Should anyone wish that I cease and desist I will immediately. Please leave a message in the comments below or please send a missive to the mail link at nihonbunka.com.

McDermott, L. (1996). Self-representation in Upper Paleolithic female figurines. Current Anthropology, 37(2), 227-275. Retireved 17th December 2016 from goo.gl/oPuXiV
Rochat, P. (1997). Early development of the ecological self. Evolving explanations of development, 91-122.
http://ift.tt/2hI9Uod...
Rochat, P. (2009). Others in mind: Social origins of self-consciousness. Cambridge University Press.


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Two Cars

December 14, 2016


Daniel Dennet (1968) writes about two cars, and their foolish owners

"It is possible, perhaps, that the brain has ... 'language' or 'code' or what Zeman calls 'the brain writing ...', [if so] there would also have to be mechanisms for 'reading' and 'understanding' this language. Without such mechanisms, the storage and transmission of sentence-like things in the brain would be as futile as saying "giddyap' to an automobile.' These reading mechanisms, in turn, would have to be information processing systems, and what are we to say of *their* internal states and events? Do *they* have syntactically analysable parts? The regress must end eventually..." p 87

He goes on to say that there is language in the brain is merely positing a little man in the brain, or car.

Dennet (1968) also writes

"Imagine a fool putting a television camera on his car and connecting it to a small receiver under the bonnet so the engine could 'see where it is going.' The madness in this is that although an image has been provided, no provision has been made for anyone or anything analogous to a perceiver to watch the image. This makes it clear that if an image is to function as an element in *perception*, it will have to function as the raw material and not the end product, for if we suppose that the product of the perceptual process is an image, we shall have to design a perceiver-analogue to sit in front of the image and yet another to sit in front of the image which is the end product of perception in the perceiver-analogue and so forth ad-infinitum." p134

He goes on to say that this too is merely positing a little man in the brain, or car.

This is ridiculous, Dennet, argues. And yet there seems to be both language and images in the brain. Or is there? The images and language are in mind, and the car or "brain" is an image or word, that Dennet believes in. The since both language and images seem imply eyes and ears, the presence of language and images mixed with perception in mind encourages us to believe that mind must have an eye or ear and is thus [in] one or other of these cars. The belief in these objective entities, cars, and brains that we think we drive and inhabit encourages us to "split ourselves" and "spectate," (Smith, 1770/2002) for all sorts of economic benefits (Smith, 1778).

We do not internalise these spectators or generalised others to understand or evaluate ourselves. The causal link is reversed. We understand or evaluate ourselves to split ourselves. The personal benefits are narcissistic: we get to love ourselves. The societal benefits (?) are ceaseless economic activity.

This what I want to write about the function of words in Western, and images in Japanese, minds.

C.f. The Navaho legend about the old women that the hero finds that encourage the Navaho to be industrious (so the hero does not kill them).

Dennett, D. C. (1986). Content and Consciousness. Routledge.
Smith, A. (2002). Adam Smith: The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1770)
Smith, A. (1778). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: W. Strahan.


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